## Children and Chocolate

Adapted from a Maths Battle in London:

Several children sit around a circular table, on which lies a collection of 100 chocolates. They proceed to take chocolates, after which it turns out that each child has taken either 6 fewer or 3 times as many chocolates as the child to their left. Prove that some chocolate was left on the table.

## The Integer Shuffle

A PuzzleCritic Original:

A sequence contains every positive integer exactly once, and no other terms. Must there exist, somewhere in the sequence:

(i) an odd number immediately followed by an even number;

(ii) a multiple of two immediately followed by a multiple of three?

## Pairs and squares

This puzzle, which I posted to twitter (@puzzlecritic) a few weeks ago, is one of my variations on a problem that appeared in a mathematical discussion group on LinkedIn:

Find three different positive integers such that the sum of any two is a square.

## The Coin Collection

A PuzzleCritic Original:

The Museum of Mathematical Mysteries houses a peculiar collection of coins, each shaped like a polygon, with the two largest proper factors of n inscribed on either face, where n is the number of edges the given coin possesses. For example, there is a hexagonal coin on which the numbers 2 and 3 are inscribed. The museum’s curator examines one of the coins and sees the number 15 inscribed on one face. Determine all numbers that might appear on the other face.

## The Vault: Robbers

Here I present one of my favourites; a problem of rare invention. From the 1998 Tournament of the Towns:

(Two-person case) Two robbers stole a bag of coins from a merchant. Each coin is worth an integer number of pennies. It is known that if any single coin is removed from the bag, then the remaining coins can be divided fairly among the two robbers (that is, they both get coins with the same total value in pennies).

Prove that after one coin is removed, the number of coins remaining is even.

(General case) A gang of robbers stole a bag of coins from a merchant. Each coin is worth an integer number of pennies. It is known that if any single coin is removed from the bag, then the remaining coins can be divided fairly among the robbers (that is, they all get coins with the same total value in pennies).

Prove that after one coin is removed, the number of coins remaining is divisible by the number of robbers.

## The Vault: Powers of two

My new book of maths puzzles is on its way! It’s packed full of interesting problems to sink your teeth into. I’ll post an update as the launch approaches.

In the meantime, here is a fantastic problem from the USA:

It is given that $2^{2004}$ is a 604-digit number beginning with a 1. How many of the numbers $2^0, 2^1, 2^2, 2^3, ..., 2^{2003}$ begin with a 4?